1. Ictus ischemico [1,2,3,4].
2.Infarto cardiaco [4,5,6,7,8].
3.Ipertensione arteriosa [9,10,11,12,13,14,15]
4.Calcificazioni vascolari [16,17]

 

E’ stata suggerita una comune patofisiologia tra calcificazioni renali e vascolari poiché la placca vascolare ha dei costituenti comuni con il nido del calcolo (placca di Randall).
L’associazione tra calcolosi urinarie e ipertensione può essere dovuta ad alterazione del metabolismo del calcio o alla sindrome metabolica con insulino-resistenza.
Queste patologie cardiovascolari sono potenzialmente prevenibili trattando il difetto metabolico alla base della calcolosi urinaria.

Bibliografia
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2. Hsu CY, Chen YT, Huang PH, et al. The association between urinary calculi and increased risk of future cardiovascular events: a nationwide population-based study. J Cardiol 2012;7:463–70.
3. Kim SY, Song CM, Bang W, et al. Nephrolithiasis predicts ischemic stroke: A longitudinal follow-up study using a national sample cohort. Int J Med Sci 2019 Jul 21;16(8):1050-1056.
4. Alexander RT, Hemmelgarn BR, Wiebe N, et al. Kidney stones and cardiovascular events: a cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2016;9:506–12.
5. Ferraro PM, Taylor EN, Eisner BH, Gambaro G, Rimm EB, Mukamal KJ, Curhan GC. History of kidney stones and the risk of coronary heart disease.JAMA 2013;310(4):408-15.
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7. Rule AD, Roger VL, Melton LJ, 3rd, et al. Kidney stones associate with increased risk of myocardial infarction. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010;21:1641-1644.
8. Eisner BH, Cooperberg MR, Kahn AJ, et al. Nephrolithiasis and the risk of heart disease in older women. J Urol 2009;181(Suppl):517–8.
9. Madore F, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. Nephrolithiasis and risk of hypertension in women. Am J Kidney Dis 1998;32:802-7.
10. Madore F, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Curhan GC. Nephrolithiasis and risk of hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1998;11(1 Pt 1):46-53.
11. Strazzullo P, Barba G, Vuotto P, et al. Past history of nephrolithiasis and incidence of hypertension in men: a reappraisal based on the results of the Olivetti prospective heart study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001;16:2232-5.
12. Gillen DL, Coe FL, Worcester EM. Nephrolithiasis and increased blood pressure among females with high body mass index. Am J Kidney Dis 2005;46:263-9.
13. Domingos F, Serra A. Nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011;26:864-8.
14. Ando R, Nagaya T, Suzuki S, et al. Positive associations of current and past history of kidney stones with overweight, hypertension, hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease in a screened population. Urology 2012;1:S51.
15. Kittanamongkolchai W, Mara KC, Mehta RA, et al. Risk of hypertension among first-time symptomatic kidney stone formers. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017;12:476–82.
16. Shavit L, Girfoglio D, Vijay V et al. Vascular calcification and bone mineral density in recurrent kidney stone formers. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2015; 10:278-285.
17. Ferraro PM, Marano R, Primiano A, et al. Stone composition and vascular calcifications in patients with nephrolithiasis. J Nephrol 2019;32:589-594.